1. Discuss the differences between military and civilian penetrating spine injury and blunt and penetrating spine trauma.
2. Discuss the acute aspects of management of civilians with penetrating spine injury including: spinal immobilization, surgical management, role of antibiotics and steroids, role of blood pressure augmentation, and associated vascular complications.
3. Discuss future directions for the research.
- 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
- 1.00 Participation